How Car Air Conditioning Works

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The automotive air-conditioning refrigeration system consists of a compressor, a condenser, a liquid storage drier, an expansion valve, an evaporator, and a blower. Copper pipes (or aluminum pipes) and high-pressure rubber pipes are used to connect each part to form a closed system. When the refrigeration system is working, the refrigerant circulates in this closed system in different states, and each cycle has four basic processes:

1. Compression process: The compressor sucks the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant gas at the outlet of the evaporator, compresses it into high-temperature and high-pressure gas, and discharges it out of the compressor.

2. Heat dissipation process: The high-temperature and high-pressure superheated refrigerant gas enters the condenser. Due to the decrease in pressure and temperature, the refrigerant gas condenses into liquid and discharges a large amount of heat.

3. Throttling process: After the refrigerant liquid with high temperature and pressure passes through the expansion device, the volume becomes larger, the pressure and temperature drop sharply, and it is discharged from the expansion device in the form of mist (fine droplets).

4. Endothermic process: The mist refrigerant liquid enters the evaporator, so the boiling point of the refrigerant is much lower than the temperature inside the evaporator, so the refrigerant liquid evaporates into gas. During the evaporation process, a large amount of surrounding heat is absorbed, and then the low-temperature and low-pressure refrigerant vapor enters the compressor. The above-mentioned process is carried out repeatedly to achieve the purpose of reducing the temperature of the air around the evaporator.

The functions of automatic air conditioning include automatic adjustment of temperature and humidity inside the car, automatic control of return air and air supply modes, operation mode and air exchange volume control, etc. The electronic control unit will make the air-conditioning system run automatically according to the settings made by the driver or passengers through the buttons on the air-conditioning display control panel, and adjust the air supply temperature and air supply speed in time according to the signals input by various sensors. Keep the air environment in the car in a good state.